Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) List Amended with the Addition of 1-Bromopropane

The Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) List was amended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on January 5, 2022 with the addition of 1-bromopropane. The Agency is required, under the Clean Air Act, to monitor and regulate hazardous air pollutant emissions. This marks the first time that the EPA has added a substance to the list in more than three decades.


1-bromopropane is a liquid organic compound with strong solvent properties. Used in numerous industries, it has a diverse range of applications, including in agricultural product development, aircraft maintenance, dry cleaning, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and synthetic fiber development.


IUPAC Name1-Bromopropane
Chemical FormulaC3H7Br
CAS Registry Number106-94-5

Exposure to 1-bromopropane occurs most frequently in occupational settings. While the principal exposure route for the chemical is via inhalation, exposure via the skin (dermal exposure) is also possible. Effects can range from relatively minor (e.g., irritation of the eyes, nose, upper airway, and skin) to more serious ones. Multiple animal studies have also shown that 1-bromopropane exposure may yield adverse systemic effects (renal, hepatic, reproductive, and more) and promote carcinogenesis.

Addition to the HAP List

In 2020, the EPA's risk evaluation for 1-bromopropane evaluated numerous conditions of use and determined that unreasonable risks to human health existed for many of them

  • Unreasonable risks were found for almost all consumer uses of the chemical (with the exception of insulation off-gassing)
  • Unreasonable risks were found for most commercial uses of the chemical (both for workers and occupational non-users)

The EPA had granted petitions for the addition of 1-bromopropane to the HAP list, and had published its rationale for doing so. Following review on the matter, the Agency concluded that good cause existed for the inclusion of this substance. It also determined that additional public comment on the issue would be duplicative, given previous decisions, and therefore not necessary for this action.

Section 112 of the Clean Air Act requires that the EPA establish emission standards mandating the maximum decrease in hazardous air pollutant emission levels. With the addition of 1-bromopropane to the HAP list, it will now be regulated under this requirement.

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