1-Bromopropane Added to CERCLA Hazardous Substances List

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently put into effect an amendment modifying the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). A principal provision of this modification was the addition of 1-bromopropane to CERCLA’s hazardous substance list. Here we review the focus of CERCLA and consider this and other associated modifications.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

CERCLA was enacted more than four decades ago, in December 1980, by the U.S. Government. The Act enables access to a "superfund" to clean up emergency environmental contaminant releases. It also allows the EPA to obligate responsible parties to clean up contaminated sites (or reimburse the Agency in cases where it conducts the cleanup efforts).

Two key types of response actions are permitted by CERCLA (the latter of which is only permitted at National Priorities List sites:

  • Short-term removal actions in response to existing or likely hazardous substance releases necessitating a rapid response
  • Long-term remedial response actions designed to decrease dangers related to existing or likely hazardous substance releases (ones deemed serious but not life threatening)

CERCLA was notably amended via the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in October 1986.


1-bromopropane is a liquid organic compound with strong solvent properties. Used in numerous industries, it has a diverse range of applications, including in agricultural product development, aircraft maintenance, dry cleaning, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and synthetic fiber development.


IUPAC Name1-Bromopropane
Chemical FormulaC3H7Br
CAS Registry Number106-94-5

Exposure to 1-bromopropane occurs most frequently in occupational settings. While the principal exposure route for the chemical is via inhalation, exposure via the skin (dermal exposure) is also possible. Effects can range from relatively minor (e.g., irritation of the eyes, nose, upper airway, and skin) to more serious ones. Multiple animal studies have also shown that 1-bromopropane exposure may yield adverse systemic effects (renal, hepatic, reproductive, and more) and promote carcinogenesis.

The EPA conducted a risk evaluation for 1-bromopropane in 2020. The evaluation, which considered multiple conditions of use, determined that unreasonable risks to human health existed for many of them:

  • Unreasonable risks were found for almost all consumer uses of the chemical (with the exception of insulation off-gassing)
  • Unreasonable risks were found for most commercial uses of the chemical (both for workers and occupational non-users)


In addition to 1-bromopropane’s inclusion on CERCLA’s hazardous substance list, the recent changes include the removal of several vacated K-Code Wastes (i.e., K064, K065, K066, K090, and K091) associated with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). They also include a variety of more administrative modifications, such as spelling and formatting corrections, removal of duplicate entries, addition or correction of CAS Registry Numbers, and more.

Additional Information on 1-Bromopropane and Other Hazardous Substances

Further detail on these and other changes may be found by reviewing the corresponding rule in its entirety.

To learn more about 1-bromopropane, as well as a multitude of other chemical substances, contact ToxPlanet and register for a Free Trial.